Research Studies

Research on NoBites™ active Ingredient (PMD) which is an organic compound has been conducted since its discovery in the early 1990’s.

Since then dozens of studies have been conducted to prove it effectiveness at repelling on a variety of insects.


 PMD Study – Dengue Fever Prevention

Effect of the Topical Repellent para-Menthane-3,8-diol on Blood Feeding Behavior and Fecundity of the Dengue Virus Vector Aedes aegypti

Dengue fever is an acute disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted primarily by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The current strategy for dengue prevention is vector control including the use of topical repellents to reduce mosquito biting. Although N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the most common active ingredient in topical repellent products, para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) is also used commercially. Studies have indicated PMD reduced biting by 90–95% for up to 6–8 h, similar to the efficacy of DEET, depending on the testing environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavioural effects of PMD on Ae. aegypti blood feeding and fecundity to explore the potential impact of PMD on downstream mosquito life-history traits. Two experiments were performed. In both experiments, cohorts of female Ae. aegypti (Belize strain) were exposed to 20% PMD or ethanol for 10 min in a closed system and introduced to an artificial membrane feeding system. Following a 30min feed time, mosquitoes of Experiment 1 were killed and weighed as a proxy measure of blood meal, whereas mosquitoes of Experiment 2 were monitored for oviposition, a measure of fecundity. Results showed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.001) in the percentage of Ae. aegypti that blood-fed when exposed to PMD (38%) compared to those non-exposed (49%). No significant difference in fecundity between test populations was indicated. These findings suggest that exposure of Ae. aegypti to 20% PMD may influence the probability of subsequent blood feeding but of those mosquitoes that do blood feed, egg-lay density is not affected. Further studies are warranted to investigate the full range of effects of PMD exposure on other Ae. aegypti life-history traits such as mating, to continue characterizing the potential effects of PMD to impact overall vector population dynamics.



Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 22(3):507-514,2 006 Copyright(C) 2006 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.



Key Analysis:

Product Tested – 30% PMD pump spray 

Species Of Insect Tested Against- Mosquitoes 






Testing Methods

This study was comprehensive in its testing method. It was field study (using two distinct geographic locations) and was conducted to US EPA standard OPPTS 810.3700.


It relied on 10 volunteers testing the product in two geographically distinct locations; hence 20 replicates in total. 

Application rate much lower than the industry standard rate of 1.0ml/600cm².

It met all applicable ethical standards by ensuring subjects were adequately warned about the potential risks of the study, women at risk or pregnancy were excluded, and the privacy of the subjects was ensured (HSRB approved).



The 30% PMD spray formulation provided up to 8.25 hours of complete protection (CPT), a standard measuring 100% protection or repellency.

This result, which gave a median CPT of 4-6.2 hours was based on an application rate of the product that was 70% lower than industry standard.  In addition, the standard of complete protection required under OPPTS 810.3700 is arguably a more rigorous standard than required by some Member States in Europe under national laws insofar as it bases its conclusion on a standard of complete protection from landings with intent to bite (time of first confirmed landing with intent to bite) whereas the "percentage protection" standard requires the often less rigorous standard of a given percentage (less than 100%) of protection from actual bites.

The US EPA determined this data supported a claim of “up to 6 hours protection from mosquitoes” based on this more conservative CPT standard.


Study  2- Evaluation of a eucalyptus-based repellent against Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) in Scotland.

Trigg JK (1996), Evaluation of a Eucalyptus-based repellent against Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Scotland , Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 1996. 12: 329-330.


Key Analysis:

Product Tested – 50% PMD  

Species Of Insect Tested Against- Biting Midge -Culicoides Impunctatus.

(Note: Culicoides is a genus of biting midge that is the major biting nuisance species in Australia)

Method and Results

A eucalyptus-based insect repellent (PMD) was evaluated against Culicoides impunctatus in Scotland in comparison with deet. In human landing catches, both repellents still afforded 98% protection from biting 8 h after application of 0.5 ml to the forearm. A second trial looking at protection between 8 and 10 h after repellent application showed 99.5% protection for PMD and 97% for deet as compared with controls.

The results of the 3-day trial showed that PMD and deet gave complete protection for 6- 7 h, and by the end of 8 h protection remained high, at 98%. An additional 3-day trial was conducted, this time applying repellents 8 h before the start of collections and continuing until 10 h after repellent application. Both deet and PMD showed strong repellency for up to 10 h against C. impunctatus with no apparent difference between them. Although complete repellency was lost, protection afford for up to 8 h after application was on average 98% for both repellents. In the additional trial to assess the repellent 8-10 h after application protection remained high, at 99.5% for PMD and 97% for deet. The present study and laboratory investigations (Trigg and Hill 1996) have demonstrated that PMD is an effective midge repellent.


Study 3 Ref: Carroll (2002)

Key Analysis:

Product Tested – 40% PMD  


Species Of Insect Tested Against- Ticks Species Ixodes



-10 subjects per product for ticks (lab)

-Untreated control

-20% DEET positive control

-Standard application rates recorded 1g/600cm²

-25 replicates for tick testing (lab only)

-6-hour duration



Tick testing showed 100% repellency for the spray for the first 4 hours, dropping to 95% for the remaining 2 hours.

The DEET control for the tick test showed 100% protection for the entire 6 hours.